Sesamoids are tiny bones embedded in a tendon that allow the tendon to slide smoothly for ease of mobility. In the foot, there are two sesamoids underneath the top of the foot and near the big toe that allow the big toe to move up and down freely. These help with push-off activities such as […]

Plantar Fibromas

Plantar fibromas occur when benign tumors develop deep inside the plantar fascia, the dense fibrous ligaments that run along the bottom of the foot. The lumps or growths forming along the foot’s arch result in pain that is often felt in various areas of the foot. Plantar fibromas can lead to a multitude of other […]

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a common and often debilitating foot condition illustrated by irritation and inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick stretch of fibrous tissue that bands along the arch of the foot, linking the bone of the heel to the tip of the forefoot. This condition can lead to significant pain and discomfort, affecting […]


Metatarsalgia is characterized by acute pain in the ball of the upper foot region, or the area between the foot’s arch and toes. There are five metatarsal bones running down the middle of the foot from the toes to the ankle; when one of the nerves between the metatarsals becomes inflamed, metatarsalgia and its accompanying […]


Flatfoot, also known as pes planus, is a common foot condition that affects the arch of the foot. In individuals with flatfoot, the entire foot makes contact with the ground when standing, instead of having a normal mid-foot rise. This can occur due to various factors, including abnormal childhood development, heredity, injuries, or conditions that […]


Capsulitis occurs when a toe joint ligament in the foot becomes inflamed due to over-stretching. These ligaments connect the toe and metatarsal bones. Capsulitis usually results from extending too much pressure to the forefoot as a result of trauma, overuse, or ill-fitting footwear. What Are Some Causes of Capsulitis? Sudden trauma or too much stress […]